Sunday, February 5, 2017
Attachment Part 2
Two other examples of anxiety and safety seem parallel and are associated with the infant’s attachment level to adults. The first is called Stranger Anxiety. This anxiety response is to a strange face and is generally seen in American children about six months of age, and then gradually disappeared by the time the child is 12 to 15 months. It takes longer for the fear to disappear generally with Infants reared in isolated rural areas and with infants with retarded cognitive development. Separation Anxiety, a second example, appeared in American infants at about 10 to 12 months of age and begins to disappear at about 20 to 24 months of age. A number of studies, have been implemented, studying this dynamic. A glaring example was with the institutionalized infant, when reared in a monotonous and impersonal environment. These infants are often cognitively and emotionally deficient; and have difficulty in reaction to human beings in a socialized way compared to a family reared children or those reared in responsive institutions. However, even a one-year-old child who may have been a victim of neglect seemed to possess a substantial capacity for recovery. Importantly, the environment after that first year loss, must provide the freedom for him to explore his world and establish positive relations with adults and children. Four different attachment classifications have been hypothesized for children based on early caregiving experience. 1. Secure attachment 2. Anxious-ambivalent attachment 3. Anxious-avoidant attachment 4.Disorganized/disoriented attachment. More recent research incorporated the attachment styles for children and developed new categories for adults. The categories include: 1. Secure 2. Anxious-preoccupied. 3. Dismissive-avoidant 4. Fearful- avoidant. The interaction between mother and infant has consequences throughout the lifespan. There are “many” complex variables at work during parenting. Unfortunately, models of parenting are often based upon one’s own upbringing. It may also be incorrectly interpreted. The high divorce rate, the vast number of unsatisfactory marriages, numerous poor interpersonal relationships and work related issues with the supervisor suggest impaired caretaking, beginning with the age of the infant. Individual therapy, family therapy, couples therapy with presenting problems of interpersonal difficulty keep therapists busy as issues. Critical difficulties with relationships beginning with the infant and child become replayed over and over again with different players throughout one’s lifetime.